Transformations in the Estonian economy in the 1990s

Table of Contents

  • Preconditions for transforming the economy

    For the Baltic states, their geographical position between Scandinavian countries and Russia has been an important determinant of economic, political, social and cultural development. In ...
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  • The monetary reform as an important determinant of changes

    Although restoration of Estonia’s independence in August 1991 brought with it several changes in the institutional framework of the economy, Estonia still remained in ...
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  • The currency board arrangement

    The currency board arrangement left rather little room for possible choices of economic policy. From the very beginning of the reform, the flows of goods ...
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  • Changes in the economic structure

    It has been characteristic of Estonian economic reform that no branch of the economy has been preferred; practically the only determining factor in the restructuring ...
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  • Foreign trade

    As Estonia has had the same fixed exchange rate since 1992, this increase in foreign trade has also occurred in convertible currency terms (US$ or ...
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  • From transition to EU integration

    The deep changes have also created conditions for co-operation and integration of Estonia into the EU. The first assistance was granted under the PHARE programme ...
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