Politics of violence of the regime

​Politics of violence exercised by the Soviet regime was various and directed against different classes of the population with the aim of totally submitting society to its control. These policies were initiated by the Communist Party apparatus and executed primarily by the state security organs – the Ministries of Internal Affairs and State Security. Mass arrests and sending to prison and labour camps of persons who were thought to have supported German occupational powers and other persons disloyal to the Soviet power were started in Estonia already in 1944. The number of people repressed in 1944-1954 was about 30,000. Deportations – the first of which had taken place in 1941 – were continued in the post-war years. The first, smaller “operation” was carried out in August 1945, when the Germans who had still remained in Estonia despite the Umsiedlung policy, all in all 407 individuals, were sent to logging camps in Siberia.

​The post-war politics of violence peaked with the mass deportations in 1949. During the March Deportation on the night of 25/26 March, 20,722 persons were deported to Siberia from Estonia. In 1950, deportations were carried out on those territories of Pskov Oblast that had been taken away from Estonia and Latvia in 1944-1945. The total number of deportees, mostly Estonians and Latvians, extended to 1400 persons.

​Direct physical repressions were accompanied by spiritual violence, expressed in the total submission of the social spiritual life to the ruling ideological dogmas and levelling the pre-war sphere of culture (education, science, art, etc.) that were carried out in the post-war decade by several campaigns (fight against “bourgeois nationalism”, “people’s enemies”, etc.). This was accompanied with overwhelming communist propaganda.

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